Wednesday, October 5, 2016

LOGIC. WHAT ARE DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS? PART 2.


Leonard Nimoy, William Shatner

To Continue with this Article, I would like to make the following Perfectly Clear, so there is No Misunderstanding.

JUST BECAUSE AN ARGUMENT IS LOGICALLY VALID, DOES NOT MAKE IT TRUE.  IT JUST MEANS THAT IT IS CONSTRUCTED PROPERLY.

The example I used as a VALID DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT IS REPRINTED BELOW;

All Politicians are Deceitful People.-  PREMISE

All Deceitful People can't be Trusted.-  PREMISE.

Therefore, All Politicians can't Be Trusted.
                                           
CONCLUSION.



THE CONCLUSION, ALL POLITICIANS CAN'T BE TRUSTED, IS MEANINGLESS BY ITSELF.  USED ALONE, SUCH A STATEMENT IS CONSIDERED LOGICALLY VALUELESS, AND IS NOTHING MORE THAN AN ASSERTION.

THE TRUTH OR ACCURACY OF THE CONCLUSION RESTS WITH THE PREMISES THAT ARE USED TO SUPPORT IT.  AS I WROTE IN PART 1;

IF THE PREMISES ARE TRUE, THE CONCLUSION MUST BE TRUE.

So, when you hear an ARGUMENT BEING MADE ADVOCATING ONE SIDE
OF AN ISSUE YOU DO NOT AGREE WITH,  AVOID FOCUSING ON THE 
JUDGMENT OR CONCLUSION BEING MADE. THE PREMISES BEING 
USED TO SUPPORT THEM IS WHERE YOU WILL FIND THE REAL SUBSTANCE OR VALUE OF THE ARGUMENT.

Returning to the Example, in order for the CONCLUSION-  ALL POLITICIANS CAN'T BE TRUSTED, TO BE TRUE, THE PREMISES:

-  ALL POLITICIANS ARE DECEITFUL PEOPLE.

AND

-  ALL DECEITFUL PEOPLE CAN'T BE TRUSTED.

MUST BE  PROVEN TO BE TRUE, OR THE CONCLUSION CANNOT 
STAND UP AS ACCURATE.



To Further Clarify, Consider These Arguments, Different
Versions of Ones I've Heard over the Years.



                 # 1                                                                 #2
ANYONE WHO BELIEVES IN HUMAN                  IF YOU ARE CHRISTIAN, THEN YOU
EVOLUTION IS AN ATHEIST.                               ARE ANTI-SCIENCE.         
                                                               
ALL ATHEISTS DO NOT BELIEVE                      IF YOU ARE ANTI- SCIENCE 
IN GOD.                                                             YOU DO NOT FOLLOW THE 
                                                                          SCIENTIFIC METHOD.                                                               
THEREFORE, IF YOU BELIEVE IN                      THEREFORE, IF YOU ARE A 
HUMAN EVOLUTION, YOU DO NOT                    CHRISTIAN, YOU DO NOT
BELIEVE IN GOD.                                               FOLLOW THE SCIENTIFIC
                                                                           METHOD.


THESE ARE VALID DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS.  HOWEVER, ARE THEY TRUE?