Throughout the Centuries, Actions that are Deemed Criminal are quite often very similar, no matter which Time Period, Society,or Culture they are taken from.
The Greeks, Romans, Persians, Mongols etc., all had Laws that prohibited Murder, Robbery, Rape and other Acts of Violence within their Zones of Power and Influence.
However, what Constituted a Violation, by Definition, and who could be Charged or Held Accountable for these Crimes varied greatly.
It was also the case that certain members could not be considered "Victimized", by Law, because of the Social Status they held within the Borders of a Given State or Country. There are still examples of this Type of Code of Criminal Conduct in the World Today.
Here are some Notable Examples, from History;
- In Ancient Sparta, a member of the Ruling or Soldier Class, could be held Accountable for Killing another member of Equal Social Standing. However, Killing a "Helot", of the Servant Class, was not Prosecuted by State Law.
- In Roman Law, a Slave could not give Testimony in a Trial, unless they had been Tortured First.
- "Serfs", during the Middle Ages, while technically not Slaves, were bound Physically and Economically to the "Lords", or Ruling Class that controlled the Land on which they Lived.
- In many Societies, a Man could not be charged with Rape, if force was used against a Woman considered to be his Lawful Wife.
- Human Rights, as we think of them today, did not start to become part of Global Politics until the 20th Century. Besides the Lack of Protections that Slaves, Enemy Combatants and the Non- Nobility had, Women and Children were often considered little more than Property, to be used as the Male Head of the Household thought best.
This Lack of Equality under the Law, was often extended to an area that no longer holds any power in much, but not all, of the Nations that exist today.
I am referring to the Trials held against the "BLASPHEMER" and the "HERETIC";
RELIGIOUS COURTS AND TRIBUNALS.
END OF PART 1.